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Some Useful Commands for Ubuntu and Kali Linux.

Below are the list of commands:-

CommandsCommand usages and details
 $apropos   Search Help manual pages (man -k)
 $apt-get   Search for and install software packages (Debian)
 $aptitude   Search for and install software packages (Debian)
 $aspell   Spell Checker
 $awk    Find and Replace text,  database sort/validate/index
 $basename   Strip directory and suffix from filenames
 $bash    GNU Bourne-Again Shell
 $bc    Arbitrary precision calculator language
 $bg    Send to background
 $break   Exit from a loop
 $builtin   Run a shell builtin
 $bzip2   Compress or decompress named files
 $cal    Display a calendar
 $case    Conditionally perform a command
 $cat    Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
 $cd    Change Directory
 $cfdisk   Partition table manipulator for Linux
 $chgrp   Change group ownership
 $chmod   Change access permissions
 $chown   Change file owner and group
 $chroot   Run a command with a different root directory
 $chkconfig  System services (runlevel)
 $cksum   Print CRC checksum and byte counts
 $clear   Clear terminal screen
 $cmp    Compare two files
 $comm    Compare two sorted files line by line
 $command   Run a command – ignoring shell functions
 $continue   Resume the next iteration of a loop
 $cp    Copy one or more files to another location
 $cron    Daemon to execute scheduled commands
 $crontab   Schedule a command to run at a later time
 $csplit   Split a file into context-determined pieces
 $cut    Divide a file into several parts
 $date    Display or change the date and time
 $dc    Desk Calculator
 $dd    Convert and copy a file,  write disk headers,  boot records
 $ddrescue   Data recovery tool
 $declare   Declare variables and give them attributes
 $df    Display free disk space
 $diff    Display the differences between two files
 $diff3   Show differences among three files
 $dig    DNS lookup
 $dir    Briefly list directory contents
 $dircolors  Colour setup for `ls’
 $dirname   Convert a full pathname to just a path
 $dirs    Display list of remembered directories
 $dmesg   Print kernel & driver messages
 $du    Estimate file space usage
 $echo    Display message on screen
 $egrep   Search files for lines that match an extended expression
 $eject   Eject removable media
 $enable   Enable and disable builtin shell commands
 $env    Environment variables
 $ethtool   Ethernet card settings
 $eval    Evaluate several commands/arguments
 $exec    Execute a command
 $exit    Exit the shell
 $expect   Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
 $expand   Convert tabs to spaces
 $export   Set an environment variable
 $expr    Evaluate expressions
 $false   Do nothing,  unsuccessfully
 $fdformat   Low-level format a floppy disk
 $fdisk   Partition table manipulator for Linux
 $fg    Send job to foreground
 $fgrep   Search files for lines that match a fixed string
 $file    Determine file type
 $find    Search for files that meet a desired criteria
 $fmt    Reformat paragraph text
 $fold    Wrap text to fit a specified width
 $for    Expand words,  and execute commands
 $format   Format disks or tapes
 $free    Display memory usage
 $fsck    File system consistency check and repair
 $ftp    File Transfer Protocol
 $function   Define Function Macros
 $fuser   Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
 $gawk    Find and Replace text within files
 $getopts   Parse positional parameters
 $grep    Search files for lines that match a given pattern
 $groupadd   Add a user security group
 $groupdel   Delete a group
 $groupmod   Modify a group
 $groups   Print group names a user is in
 $gzip    Compress or decompress named files
 $hash    Remember the full pathname of a name argument
 $head    Output the first part of files
 $help    Display help for a built-in command
 $history   Command History
 $hostname   Print or set system name
 $iconv   Convert the character set of a file
 $id    Print user and group id’s
 $if    Conditionally perform a command
 $ifconfig   Configure a network interface
 $ifdown   Stop a network interface
 $ifup    Start a network interface up
 $import   Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
 $install   Copy files and set attributes
 $jobs    List active jobs
 $join    Join lines on a common field
 $kill    Stop a process from running
 $killall   Kill processes by name
 $less    Display output one screen at a time
 $let    Perform arithmetic on shell variables
 $ln    Create a symbolic link to a file
 $local   Create variables
 $locate   Find files
 $logname   Print current login name
 $logout   Exit a login shell
 $look    Display lines beginning with a given string
 $lpc    Line printer control program
 $lpr    Off line print
 $lprint   Print a file
 $lprintd   Abort a print job
 $lprintq   List the print queue
 $lprm    Remove jobs from the print queue
 $ls    List information about files
 $lsof    List open files
 $make    Recompile a group of programs
 $man    Help manual
 $mkdir   Create new folders
 $mkfifo   Make FIFOs (named pipes)
 $mkisofs   Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
 $mknod   Make block or character special files
 $more    Display output one screen at a time
 $mount   Mount a file system
 $mtools   Manipulate MS-DOS files
 $mtr    Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
 $mv    Move or rename files or directories
 $mmv    Mass Move and rename files
 $netstat   Networking information
 $nice    Set the priority of a command or job
 $nl    Number lines and write files
 $nohup   Run a command immune to hangups
 $notify-send  Send desktop notifications
 $nslookup   Query Internet name servers interactively
 $open    Open a file in its default application
 $op    Operator access
 $passwd   Modify a user password
 $paste   Merge lines of files
 $pathchk   Check file name portability
 $ping    Test a network connection
 $pkill   Stop processes from running
 $popd    Restore the previous value of the current directory
 $pr    Prepare files for printing
 $printcap   Printer capability database
 $printenv   Print environment variables
 $printf   Format and print data
 $ps    Process status
 $pushd   Save and then change the current directory
 $pwd    Print Working Directory
 $quota   Display disk usage and limits
 $quotacheck  Scan a file system for disk usage
 $quotactl   Set disk quotas
 $ram    ram disk device
 $rcp    Copy files between two machines
 $read    Read a line from standard input
 $readarray  Read from stdin into an array variable
 $readonly   Mark variables/functions as readonly
 $reboot   Reboot the system
 $rename   Rename files
 $renice   Alter priority of running processes
 $remsync   Synchronize remote files via email
 $return   Exit a shell function
 $rev    Reverse lines of a file
 $rm    Remove files
 $rmdir   Remove folders
 $rsync   Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
 $screen   Multiplex terminal,  run remote shells via ssh
 $scp    Secure copy (remote file copy)
 $sdiff   Merge two files interactively
 $sed    Stream Editor
 $select   Accept keyboard input
 $seq    Print numeric sequences
 $set    Manipulate shell variables and functions
 $sftp    Secure File Transfer Program
 $shift   Shift positional parameters
 $shopt   Shell Options
 $shutdown   Shutdown or restart linux
 $sleep   Delay for a specified time
 $slocate   Find files
 $sort    Sort text files
 $source   Run commands from a file
 $split   Split a file into fixed-size pieces
 $ssh    Secure Shell client (remote login program)
 $strace   Trace system calls and signals
 $su    Substitute user identity(superuser)
 $sudo    Execute a command as another/root user
 $sum    Print a checksum for a file
 $suspend   Suspend execution of this shell
 $symlink   Make a new name for a file
 $sync    Synchronize data on disk with memory
 $tail    Output the last part of file
 $tar    Tape Archiver
 $tee    Redirect output to multiple files
 $test    Evaluate a conditional expression
 $time    Measure Program running time
 $times   User and system times
 $touch   Change file timestamps
 $top    List processes running on the system
 $traceroute  Trace Route to Host
 $trap    Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
 $tr    Translate,  squeeze,  and/or delete characters
 $true    Do nothing,  successfully
 $tsort   Topological sort
 $tty    Print filename of terminal on stdin
 $type    Describe a command
 $ulimit   Limit user resources
 $umask   Users file creation mask
 $umount   Unmount a device
 $unalias   Remove an alias
 $uname   Print system information
 $unexpand   Convert spaces to tabs
 $uniq    Uniquify files
 $units   Convert units from one scale to another
 $unset   Remove variable or function names
 $unshar   Unpack shell archive scripts
 $until   Execute commands (until error)
 $uptime   Show uptime
 $useradd   Create new user account
 $usermod   Modify user account
 $users    List users currently logged in
 $uuencode   Encode a binary file
 $uudecode   Decode a file created by uuencode
 $v    Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
 $vdir    Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
 $vi    Text Editor
 $vmstat   Report virtual memory statistics
 $wait    Wait for a process to complete
 $watch   Execute/display a program periodically
 $wc    Print byte,  word,  and line counts
 $whereis   Search the user’s $path,  man pages and source files for a program
 $which   Search the user’s $path for a program file
 $while   Execute commands
 $who    Print all usernames currently logged in
 $whoami   Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
 $wget    Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
 $write   Send a message to another user
 $xargs   Execute utility, passing constructed argument lists
 $xdg-open   Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application
 $yes   Print a string until interrupted

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